In this chapter, we will do for interrupts what we have done for polling in a previous chapter. Namely, we will write a SystemVerilog module…

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Variational autoencoders are unsupervised generative models. By “unsupervised”, we mean that they train with unlabeled data. By generative, we mean that the variational autoencoders are…

Comments closedLet us remember the basic setup of the probability theory: “…….A random experiment is an action for which all possible outcomes can be listed, but…

Comments closedTime and frequency considerations It is impossible to read a continuous signal into a computer. Hence, reading a continuous signal always involves some sort of…

Comments closedCompression property of fourier transformation and bandwidth of a signal. When we record a speech signal $x(t)$ for 10 minutes, the intensity of the speech…

Comments closedLinearity If $FT[x_1(t)] = X_1 (\omega)$ and $FT[x_2(t)] = X_2 (\omega)$, and if $a_1, a_2 \in \mathbb{R}$, then $FT[a_1x_1(t) + a_2x_2(t)] = a_1X_1 (\omega) +…

Comments closedDiscrete functions (or, discrete signals in engineer talk) also form a vector space. Consider a discrete signal \(X[i]\), ie \begin{eqnarray} \ldots \, X[-3] , X[-2]…

Comments closedVector Spaces Merriam-webster dictionary defines a vector as “….a quantity that has magnitude and direction and that is commonly represented by a directed line segment…

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